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Enter author surname:. Display : 25 50 Previous record Next record. Actions Tools Choose a colour. This report draws on lessons from the Green Revolution to inform stakeholders who are concerned with the current genetically modified GM crop movement. It is hoped that this analysis can illuminate opportunities for GM crops to increase farm production, rural income and food security in The future of genetically modified crops: lessons from the Green Revolution.
It is hoped that this analysis can illuminate opportunities for GM crops to increase farm production, rural income income Subject Category: Miscellaneous see more details and food security food security Subject Category: Miscellaneous see more details in developing countries developing countries Subject Category: Miscellaneous see more details , while controlling potential risks to health and the environment.
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The future of genetically modified crops: lessons from the Green Revolution.
Are you sure you want to remove this search from Saved Searches? Cancel Remove search. Add to project. Data were analyzed using Microsoft Excel and R Studio software. In other words, GM crops are grown on approximately 3. In the 19 years period —, the growth rate of area under GM was continually growing. A clear linear trend of the total biotech hectarage growth can be expressed by equation:. Linear trend equation for developing and developed countries, respectively, is as follows:.
Total area under GM, distribution in developing and developed countries million hectares. Source: Author's calculations based on data from James — For the first time in , developing countries planted more biotech crops than industrial countries, Higher participation of developing countries was also observed in subsequent years. Latin American, Asian, and African farmers collectively grew The first countries that engaged themselves in the transgenic production were U.
In , South Africa, Spain, and France grew transgenic crops for the first time. India planted GM crops for the first time in In the same year, Colombia and Honduras started their production. Two countries, Brazil and the Philippines, approved planting of GM crops in In , for the first time, Paraguay reported its cultivation. From Graph 2, it can be seen a significant increase in the producing countries in numbers. For example, the number of developing countries increases from 2 in to 20 in [ 21 , 25 — 43 ].
It is very important to stress that total number of producing countries has not increased since This is an indication of problems in the geographical diffusion of GMOs. Producing countries developing and developed. Author's calculations based on data [21, 25—43]. From the very beginning, U. For example, U. Brazil, the second largest producer, started relatively late with the production but at present accounts for Argentina, the third biggest producer, participates in the total acreage of India and Canada areas reached 6.
Australia produces GM on just 0. In , there were 28 countries that grew GM crops, but in reality, a large majority of the area planted to GM crops still remains in just a few countries. The list of countries that grew GM crops in includes Bangladesh, which grew as little as 25 hectares of GM crops in , and Costa Rica, which grew 38 hectares in [ 21 , 25 — 43 ]. At first glance, this diffusion is impressive but certainly is not without problems. Despite the great support to genetically modified organisms GMOs in the several countries of Latin America, there is a resistance on this continent.
The Seed Law seeks to consolidate national food sovereignty, regulates the production of hybrid seed, rejects the production, distribution, and import of GMO seeds, and also bans transgenic seed research [ 44 ]. Similarly, in the Middle East, Iran, country which initiated its rice biotech activities in with several hundred farmers growing hectares of Bt rice on their farms and cloned the first GM animal, sheep in [ 45 ] very soon, has decided to drop the commercialization of GMOs.
Currently, government is preparing new law to facilitate GMO production. At the same, time the resistance of certain groups strengthens [ 46 ]. Apart from Russia where situation is more than clear and where the food safety regulator Rosselkhoznadzor bans GMO production and import [ 47 ] and Prime Minister has described as amounting to little more than a form of biological warfare weapon [ 48 ], the biggest challenge in terms of adoption and acceptance of GMOs remains Africa and Europe.
For a long time, South Africa was the only country on the continent of Africa to commercialize biotech crops. Historically, important event was also the involvement of Sudan in Bt cotton remains the only crop commercialized in Burkina Faso [ 50 ]. Sofitex, Burkina Faso's major cotton production association, on April 5, , decided to switch its production to percent conventional methods and has announced a rejection of GM cotton in the next three years due to the disappointing yields and poor quality fiber [ 51 ].
Cultivation in the EU fell Share of GM corn in total corn area is just 1. The adopters include the GM producer countries as well as countries where the government and industries mostly favor biotechnology Denmark, Estonia, Finland, Flanders in northern Belgium, the Netherlands, and the United Kingdom. Conflicted members are those states where scientific community, farmers, and the feed industry are willing to adopt the technology, but consumers and governments, influenced by activist Green parties and NGOs, reject it France, Germany, Poland, Southern Belgium Wallonia , Bulgaria, Ireland, Lithuania Sweden, Germany.
In the opposed member states, most stakeholders reject the technology and government generally supports organic agriculture and geographical indications Austria, Croatia, Cyprus, Greece, Hungary, Italy, Malta, Slovenia, and Latvia [ 54 ]. One of the leading opposed countries is Hungary which initiated a joint alliance of EU member states rejecting the use of GE crops with the objective to make the entire EU free from GM crops.
There are no commercialized GM varieties of a number of key global staple crops, including wheat, rice, barley, millet, sorghum, cassava, and yam.
The first generations of GM potato that resist blight were planted on hectares in after FDA approval [ 55 ]. Principal four crops are generally used in food system as ingredients in processed food and in animal feed. The biggest drop is recorded in the share of canola in the total GM area, from 8.
GM sugar beet production started in , but until now areas under this crop are about 0. Author's calculation based on Refs. Percentage share of the most important crops in the total area under GMOs — Global adoption rate of the principal GM crops — One look at the slower growth of plantation area is due to the saturation of adoption rate in countries with mature GM models. Another view indicates that the resistance becoming stronger by opposition from consumer and environmental groups, regulatory hurdles, and, in some cases, scientific obstacles.
One might ask whether the refusal of consumers around the world to accept GM sugar is the reason for the stagnation of GM sugar beets production. Anyway, the fact is that the U.
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In the period —, U. Taking into consideration problems with exports market, it is logical routing of surplus into ethanol production. Share of soybean oil used for biodiesel increased from 0. In the same period of time, soybean oil production has increased for just It can be observed that share of the U. Percentage share of the most important traits in the total area under GMOs — GMOs diffusion is uneven if we are speaking about traits also.
HT crops are developed to survive application of specific herbicides, which would otherwise kill the crop plants. When certain insects ingest the protein produced by Bt, the function of their digestive systems is disrupted, producing slow growth and, ultimately, death. In recent years, various combinations of these two properties are used in creation of stacked plants. Gene stacking refers to the process of combining two or more genes of interest into a single plant; the combined traits resulting from this process are called stacked traits. From , areas under stacked crops are higher than the areas under Bt crops.
In , These numbers are significantly different in when It is important to stress that referred data do not mean that the area under HT crops was reduced. Contrarily, it was increased.
When we consider stacked and single trait crops together in , Companies that have patent protection over GM seeds in the same time are herbicides producers. This means that multinationals in the same time sell both seeds and pesticides. Linear trend of growth in current prices can be expressed through equation:. Authors calculation based on Refs. Transgenic crops global market value per hectare in current and constant prices.
Source: Author's calculation based on Ref. Cereals production —, — Author's calculations based on Ref. Average cereals production level in the period — was Average value of this parameter was 7. These results clearly demonstrated that transgenic technology has failed to contribute to hunger and famine reduction. Unfortunately, food insecurity and world hunger are still a recurring problem in a significant number of countries.
This can be represented by the following equation:. The results can lead us to conclusion that stacked traits obtained through more complex transformations potentially leading to a further enrichment of multinational companies.